Skip to main content

Liquidity Pool

The liquidity pool example demonstrates how to write a constant product liquidity pool contract. A liquidity pool is an automated way to add liquidity for a set of tokens that will facilitate asset conversion between them. Users can deposit some amount of each token into the pool, receiving a proportional number of "token shares." The user will then receive a portion of the accrued conversion fees when they ultimately "trade in" their token shares to receive their original tokens back.

Soroban liquidity pools are exclusive to Soroban and cannot interact with built-in Stellar AMM liquidity pools.

caution

Implementing a custom liquidity pool should be done cautiously. User funds are involved, so great care should be taken to ensure safety and transparency. The example here should not be considered a ready-to-go contract. Please use it as a reference only.

The Stellar network already has liquidity pool functionality built right in to the core protocol. Learn more here.

Open in Gitpod

Run the Example

First go through the Setup process to get your development environment configured, then clone the v20.0.0 tag of soroban-examples repository:

git clone -b v20.0.0 https://github.com/stellar/soroban-examples

Or, skip the development environment setup and open this example in Gitpod.

To run the tests for the example, navigate to the liquidity_pool directory, and use cargo test.

cd liquidity_pool
cargo test

You should see the output:

running 1 test
test test::test ... ok

Code

info

Since our liquidity pool will be issuing its own token to establish the nuber of shares in the pool the address has, we have created a token.rs module in this project to hold the logic controlling the token contract for those shares.

liquidity_pool/src/lib.rs
#![no_std]

mod test;
mod token;

use num_integer::Roots;
use soroban_sdk::{
contract, contractimpl, contractmeta, Address, BytesN, ConversionError, Env, IntoVal,
TryFromVal, Val,
};
use token::create_contract;

#[derive(Clone, Copy)]
#[repr(u32)]
pub enum DataKey {
TokenA = 0,
TokenB = 1,
TokenShare = 2,
TotalShares = 3,
ReserveA = 4,
ReserveB = 5,
}

impl TryFromVal<Env, DataKey> for Val {
type Error = ConversionError;

fn try_from_val(_env: &Env, v: &DataKey) -> Result<Self, Self::Error> {
Ok((*v as u32).into())
}
}

fn get_token_a(e: &Env) -> Address {
e.storage().instance().get(&DataKey::TokenA).unwrap()
}

fn get_token_b(e: &Env) -> Address {
e.storage().instance().get(&DataKey::TokenB).unwrap()
}

fn get_token_share(e: &Env) -> Address {
e.storage().instance().get(&DataKey::TokenShare).unwrap()
}

fn get_total_shares(e: &Env) -> i128 {
e.storage().instance().get(&DataKey::TotalShares).unwrap()
}

fn get_reserve_a(e: &Env) -> i128 {
e.storage().instance().get(&DataKey::ReserveA).unwrap()
}

fn get_reserve_b(e: &Env) -> i128 {
e.storage().instance().get(&DataKey::ReserveB).unwrap()
}

fn get_balance(e: &Env, contract: Address) -> i128 {
token::Client::new(e, &contract).balance(&e.current_contract_address())
}

fn get_balance_a(e: &Env) -> i128 {
get_balance(e, get_token_a(e))
}

fn get_balance_b(e: &Env) -> i128 {
get_balance(e, get_token_b(e))
}

fn get_balance_shares(e: &Env) -> i128 {
get_balance(e, get_token_share(e))
}

fn put_token_a(e: &Env, contract: Address) {
e.storage().instance().set(&DataKey::TokenA, &contract);
}

fn put_token_b(e: &Env, contract: Address) {
e.storage().instance().set(&DataKey::TokenB, &contract);
}

fn put_token_share(e: &Env, contract: Address) {
e.storage().instance().set(&DataKey::TokenShare, &contract);
}

fn put_total_shares(e: &Env, amount: i128) {
e.storage().instance().set(&DataKey::TotalShares, &amount)
}

fn put_reserve_a(e: &Env, amount: i128) {
e.storage().instance().set(&DataKey::ReserveA, &amount)
}

fn put_reserve_b(e: &Env, amount: i128) {
e.storage().instance().set(&DataKey::ReserveB, &amount)
}

fn burn_shares(e: &Env, amount: i128) {
let total = get_total_shares(e);
let share_contract = get_token_share(e);

token::Client::new(e, &share_contract).burn(&e.current_contract_address(), &amount);
put_total_shares(e, total - amount);
}

fn mint_shares(e: &Env, to: Address, amount: i128) {
let total = get_total_shares(e);
let share_contract_id = get_token_share(e);

token::Client::new(e, &share_contract_id).mint(&to, &amount);

put_total_shares(e, total + amount);
}

fn transfer(e: &Env, token: Address, to: Address, amount: i128) {
token::Client::new(e, &token).transfer(&e.current_contract_address(), &to, &amount);
}

fn transfer_a(e: &Env, to: Address, amount: i128) {
transfer(e, get_token_a(e), to, amount);
}

fn transfer_b(e: &Env, to: Address, amount: i128) {
transfer(e, get_token_b(e), to, amount);
}

fn get_deposit_amounts(
desired_a: i128,
min_a: i128,
desired_b: i128,
min_b: i128,
reserve_a: i128,
reserve_b: i128,
) -> (i128, i128) {
if reserve_a == 0 && reserve_b == 0 {
return (desired_a, desired_b);
}

let amount_b = desired_a * reserve_b / reserve_a;
if amount_b <= desired_b {
if amount_b < min_b {
panic!("amount_b less than min")
}
(desired_a, amount_b)
} else {
let amount_a = desired_b * reserve_a / reserve_b;
if amount_a > desired_a || desired_a < min_a {
panic!("amount_a invalid")
}
(amount_a, desired_b)
}
}

// Metadata that is added on to the WASM custom section
contractmeta!(
key = "Description",
val = "Constant product AMM with a .3% swap fee"
);

pub trait LiquidityPoolTrait {
// Sets the token contract addresses for this pool
fn initialize(e: Env, token_wasm_hash: BytesN<32>, token_a: Address, token_b: Address);

// Returns the token contract address for the pool share token
fn share_id(e: Env) -> Address;

// Deposits token_a and token_b. Also mints pool shares for the "to" Identifier. The amount minted
// is determined based on the difference between the reserves stored by this contract, and
// the actual balance of token_a and token_b for this contract.
fn deposit(e: Env, to: Address, desired_a: i128, min_a: i128, desired_b: i128, min_b: i128);

// If "buy_a" is true, the swap will buy token_a and sell token_b. This is flipped if "buy_a" is false.
// "out" is the amount being bought, with in_max being a safety to make sure you receive at least that amount.
// swap will transfer the selling token "to" to this contract, and then the contract will transfer the buying token to "to".
fn swap(e: Env, to: Address, buy_a: bool, out: i128, in_max: i128);

// transfers share_amount of pool share tokens to this contract, burns all pools share tokens in this contracts, and sends the
// corresponding amount of token_a and token_b to "to".
// Returns amount of both tokens withdrawn
fn withdraw(e: Env, to: Address, share_amount: i128, min_a: i128, min_b: i128) -> (i128, i128);

fn get_rsrvs(e: Env) -> (i128, i128);
}

#[contract]
struct LiquidityPool;

#[contractimpl]
impl LiquidityPoolTrait for LiquidityPool {
fn initialize(e: Env, token_wasm_hash: BytesN<32>, token_a: Address, token_b: Address) {
if token_a >= token_b {
panic!("token_a must be less than token_b");
}

let share_contract = create_contract(&e, token_wasm_hash, &token_a, &token_b);
token::Client::new(&e, &share_contract).initialize(
&e.current_contract_address(),
&7u32,
&"Pool Share Token".into_val(&e),
&"POOL".into_val(&e),
);

put_token_a(&e, token_a);
put_token_b(&e, token_b);
put_token_share(&e, share_contract.try_into().unwrap());
put_total_shares(&e, 0);
put_reserve_a(&e, 0);
put_reserve_b(&e, 0);
}

fn share_id(e: Env) -> Address {
get_token_share(&e)
}

fn deposit(e: Env, to: Address, desired_a: i128, min_a: i128, desired_b: i128, min_b: i128) {
// Depositor needs to authorize the deposit
to.require_auth();

let (reserve_a, reserve_b) = (get_reserve_a(&e), get_reserve_b(&e));

// Calculate deposit amounts
let amounts = get_deposit_amounts(desired_a, min_a, desired_b, min_b, reserve_a, reserve_b);

let token_a_client = token::Client::new(&e, &get_token_a(&e));
let token_b_client = token::Client::new(&e, &get_token_b(&e));

token_a_client.transfer(&to, &e.current_contract_address(), &amounts.0);
token_b_client.transfer(&to, &e.current_contract_address(), &amounts.1);

// Now calculate how many new pool shares to mint
let (balance_a, balance_b) = (get_balance_a(&e), get_balance_b(&e));
let total_shares = get_total_shares(&e);

let zero = 0;
let new_total_shares = if reserve_a > zero && reserve_b > zero {
let shares_a = (balance_a * total_shares) / reserve_a;
let shares_b = (balance_b * total_shares) / reserve_b;
shares_a.min(shares_b)
} else {
(balance_a * balance_b).sqrt()
};

mint_shares(&e, to, new_total_shares - total_shares);
put_reserve_a(&e, balance_a);
put_reserve_b(&e, balance_b);
}

fn swap(e: Env, to: Address, buy_a: bool, out: i128, in_max: i128) {
to.require_auth();

let (reserve_a, reserve_b) = (get_reserve_a(&e), get_reserve_b(&e));
let (reserve_sell, reserve_buy) = if buy_a {
(reserve_b, reserve_a)
} else {
(reserve_a, reserve_b)
};

// First calculate how much needs to be sold to buy amount out from the pool
let n = reserve_sell * out * 1000;
let d = (reserve_buy - out) * 997;
let sell_amount = (n / d) + 1;
if sell_amount > in_max {
panic!("in amount is over max")
}

// Transfer the amount being sold to the contract
let sell_token = if buy_a {
get_token_b(&e)
} else {
get_token_a(&e)
};
let sell_token_client = token::Client::new(&e, &sell_token);
sell_token_client.transfer(&to, &e.current_contract_address(), &sell_amount);

let (balance_a, balance_b) = (get_balance_a(&e), get_balance_b(&e));

// residue_numerator and residue_denominator are the amount that the invariant considers after
// deducting the fee, scaled up by 1000 to avoid fractions
let residue_numerator = 997;
let residue_denominator = 1000;
let zero = 0;

let new_invariant_factor = |balance: i128, reserve: i128, out: i128| {
let delta = balance - reserve - out;
let adj_delta = if delta > zero {
residue_numerator * delta
} else {
residue_denominator * delta
};
residue_denominator * reserve + adj_delta
};

let (out_a, out_b) = if buy_a { (out, 0) } else { (0, out) };

let new_inv_a = new_invariant_factor(balance_a, reserve_a, out_a);
let new_inv_b = new_invariant_factor(balance_b, reserve_b, out_b);
let old_inv_a = residue_denominator * reserve_a;
let old_inv_b = residue_denominator * reserve_b;

if new_inv_a * new_inv_b < old_inv_a * old_inv_b {
panic!("constant product invariant does not hold");
}

if buy_a {
transfer_a(&e, to, out_a);
} else {
transfer_b(&e, to, out_b);
}

put_reserve_a(&e, balance_a - out_a);
put_reserve_b(&e, balance_b - out_b);
}

fn withdraw(e: Env, to: Address, share_amount: i128, min_a: i128, min_b: i128) -> (i128, i128) {
to.require_auth();

// First transfer the pool shares that need to be redeemed
let share_token_client = token::Client::new(&e, &get_token_share(&e));
share_token_client.transfer(&to, &e.current_contract_address(), &share_amount);

let (balance_a, balance_b) = (get_balance_a(&e), get_balance_b(&e));
let balance_shares = get_balance_shares(&e);

let total_shares = get_total_shares(&e);

// Now calculate the withdraw amounts
let out_a = (balance_a * balance_shares) / total_shares;
let out_b = (balance_b * balance_shares) / total_shares;

if out_a < min_a || out_b <TabItem min_b {
panic!("min not satisfied");
}

burn_shares(&e, balance_shares);
transfer_a(&e, to.clone(), out_a);
transfer_b(&e, to, out_b);
put_reserve_a(&e, balance_a - out_a);
put_reserve_b(&e, balance_b - out_b);

(out_a, out_b)
}

fn get_rsrvs(e: Env) -> (i128, i128) {
(get_reserve_a(&e), get_reserve_b(&e))
}
}

Ref: https://github.com/stellar/soroban-examples/tree/v20.0.0/liquidity_pool

How it Works

Every asset created on Stellar starts with zero liquidity. The same is true of tokens created on Soroban (unless a Stellar asset with existing liquidity token is "wrapped" for use in Soroban). In simple terms, "liquidity" means how much of an asset in a market is available to be bough or sold. In the "old days," you could generate liquidity in a market by creating buy/sell orders on an order book.

Liquidity pools automate this process by substituting the orders with math. Depositors into the liquidity pool earn fees from swap transactions. No orders required!

Open the liquidity_pool/src/lib.rs file or see the code above to follow along.

Initialize the Contract

When this contract is first deployed, it could create a liquidity pool for any pair of tokens available on Soroban. It must first be initialized with the following information:

  • token_wasm_hash: The contract will end up creating its own POOL token as well as interacting with contracts for token_a and token_b. The way this example works is by using the token example contract for both of these jobs. When our liquidity pool contract is initialized it wants us to pass the wasm hash of the already installed token contract. It will then deploy a contract that will run the WASM bytecode stored at that hash as a new token contract for the POOL tokens.
  • token_a: The contract Address for an already deployed (or wrapped) token that will be held in reserve by the liquidity pool.
  • token_b: The contract Address for an already deployed (or wrapped) token that will be held in reserve by the liquidity pool.

Bear in mind that which token is token_a and which is token_b is not an arbitrary distinction. In line with the Built-in Stellar liquidity pools, this contract can only make a single liquidity pool for a given set of tokens. So, the token addresses must be provided in lexicographical order at the time of initialization.

liquidity_pool/src/lib.rs
fn initialize(e: Env, token_wasm_hash: BytesN<32>, taken_a: Address, token_b: Address) {
if token_a >= token_b {
panic!("token_a must be less than token_b");
}

// The initialization function also stores important information in the contract's instance storage
put_token_a(&e, token_a);
put_token_b(&e, token_b);
put_token_share(&e, share_contract.try_into().unwrap());
put_total_shares(&e, 0);
put_reserve_a(&e, 0);
put_reserve_b(&e, 0);
}

A "Constant Product" Liquidity Pool

The type of liquidity pool this example contract implements is called a "constant product" liquidity pool. While this isn't the only type of liquidity pool out there, it is the most common variety. These liquidity pools are designed to keep the total value of each asset in relative equilibrium. The "product" in the constant product (also called an "invariant") will change every time the liquidity pool is interacted with (deposit, withdraw, or token swaps). However, the invariant must only increase with every interaction.

During a swap, what must be kept in mind is that for every withdrawal from the token_a side, you must "refill" the token_b side with a sufficient amount to keep the liquidity pool's price balanced. The math is predictable, but it is not linear. The more you take from one side, the more you must give on the opposite site exponentially.

Inside the swap function, the math is done like this (this is a simplified version, however):

liquidity_pool/src/lib.rs
fn swap(e: Env, to: Address, buy_a: bool, out: i128, in_max: i128) {
// Get the current balances of both tokens in the liquidity pool
let (reserve_sell, reserve_buy) = (get_reserve_a(&e), get_reserve_b(&e));

// Calculate how much needs to be
let n = reserve_sell * out * 1000;
let d = (reserve_buy - out) * 997;
let sell_amount = (n / d) + 1;
}

We have much more in-depth information about how this kind of liquidity pool works is available in Stellar Quest: Series 3, Quest 5. This is a really useful, interactive way to learn more about how the built-in Stellar liquidity pools work. Much of the knowledge you might gain from there will easily translate to this example contract.

Interacting with Token Contracts in Another Contract

This liquidity pool contract will operate with a total of three different Soroban tokens:

  • POOL: This token is a unique token that is given to asset depositors in exchange for their deposit. These tokens are "traded in" by the user when they withdraw some amount of their original deposit (plus any earned swap fees). This example contract implements the same token example contract for this token.
  • token_a and token_b: Will be the two "reserve tokens" that users will deposit into the pool. These could be "wrapped" tokens from pre-existing Stellar assets, or they could be Soroban-native tokens. This contract doesn't really care, as long as the functions it needs from the common Token Interface are available in the token contract.

Creating a Custom POOL Token for LP Shares

We are utilizing the compiled token example contract as our asset contract for the POOL token. This means it follows all the conventions of the Token Interface, and can be treated just like any other token. They could be transferred, burned, minted, etc. It also means the LP developer could take advantage of the administrative features such as clawbacks, authorization, and more.

The token.rs file contains a create_contract function that we will use to deploy this particular token contract.

src/token.rs
pub fn create_contract(
e: &Env,
token_wasm_hash: BytesN<32>,
token_a: &Address,
token_b: &Address,
) -> Address {
let mut salt = Bytes::new(e);
salt.append(&token_a.to_xdr(e));
salt.append(&token_b.to_xdr(e));
let salt = e.crypto().sha256(&salt);
e.deployer()
.with_current_contract(salt)
.deploy(token_wasm_hash)
}

This POOL token contract is then created within the initialize function.

liquidity_pool/src/lib.rs
fn initialize(e: Env, token_wasm_hash: BytesN<32>, token_a: Address, token_b: Address) {
let share_contract = create_contract(&e, token_wasm_hash, &token_a, &token_b);
token::Client::new(&e, &share_contract).initialize(
&e.current_contract_address(),
&7u32,
&"Pool Share Token".into_val(&e),
&"POOL".into_val(&e),
);
}

Then, during a deposit, a calculated amount of POOL tokens are minted to the depositing address.

liquidity_pool/src/lib.rs
fn mint_shares(e: &Env, to: Address, amount: i128) {
let total = get_total_shares(e);
let share_contract_id = get_token_share(e);

token::Client::new(e, &share_contract_id).mint(&to, &amount);

put_total_shares(e, total + amount);
}

How is that number of shares calculated, you ask? Excellent question! If it's the very first deposit (see above), it's just the square root of the product of the quantities of token_a and token_b deposited. Very simple.

However, if there have already been deposits into the liquidity pool, and the user is just adding more tokens into the pool, there's a bit more math. However, the main point is that each depositor receives the same ratio of POOL tokens for their deposit as every other depositor.

liquidity_pool/src/lib.rs
fn deposit(e: Env, to: Address, desired_a: i128, min_a: i128, desired_b: i128, min_b: i128) {
let zero = 0;
let new_total_shares = if reserve_a > zero && reserve_b > zero {
// Note balance_a and balance_b at this point in the function include
// the tokens the user is currently depositing, whereas reserve_a and
// reserve_b do not yet.
let shares_a = (balance_a * total_shares) / reserve_a;
let shares_b = (balance_b * total_shares) / reserve_b;
shares_a.min(shares_b)
} else {
(balance_a * balance_b).sqrt()
};
}

Token Transfers to/from the LP Contract

As we've already discussed, the liquidity pool contract will make use of the Token Interface available in the token contracts that were supplied as token_a and token_b arguments at the time of initialization. Throughout the rest of the contract, the liquidity pool will make use of that interface to make transfers of those tokens to/from itself.

What's happening is that as a user deposits tokens into the pool, and the contract invokes the transfer function to move the tokens from the to address (the depositor) to be held by the contract address. POOL tokens are then minted to depositor (see previous section). Pretty simple, right!?

liquidity_pool/src/lib.rs
fn deposit(e: Env, to: Address, desired_a: i128, min_a: i128, desired_b: i128, min_b: i128) {
// Depositor needs to authorize the deposit
to.require_auth();

let token_a_client = token::Client::new(&e, &get_token_a(&e));
let token_b_client = token::Client::new(&e, &get_token_b(&e));

token_a_client.transfer(&to, &e.current_contract_address(), &amounts.0);
token_b_client.transfer(&to, &e.current_contract_address(), &amounts.1);

mint_shares(&e, to, new_total_shares - total_shares);
}

In contrast, when a user withdraws their deposited tokens, It's about more involved, and the following procedure happens.

  1. Some amount of the POOL token is transferred from the depositor to the contract address. This is a temporary way to track how many POOL tokens are being redeemed. The contract will not hold this balance of POOL for long.
  2. The withdraw amounts for the reserve tokens are calculated based on the contract's current balance of POOL tokens.
  3. The POOL tokens are burned now that the withdraw amounts have been calculated, and they are no longer needed.
  4. The respective amounts of token_a and token_b are transferred from the contract address into the to address (the depositor).
liquidity_pool/src/lib.rs
fn withdraw(e: Env, to: Address, share_amount: i128, min_a: i128, min_b: i128) -> (i128, i128) {
to.require_auth();

// First transfer the pool shares that need to be redeemed
let share_token_client = token::Client::new(&e, &get_token_share(&e));
share_token_client.transfer(&to, &e.current_contract_address(), &share_amount);

// Now calculate the withdraw amounts
let out_a = (balance_a * balance_shares) / total_shares;
let out_b = (balance_b * balance_shares) / total_shares;

burn_shares(&e, balance_shares);
transfer_a(&e, to.clone(), out_a);
transfer_b(&e, to, out_b);
}

You'll notice that by holding the balance of token_a and token_b on the liquidity pool contract itself it makes, it very easy for us to perform any of the Token Interface actions inside the contract. As a bonus, any outside observer could query the balances of token_a or token_b held by the contract to verify the reserves are actually in line with the values the contract reports when its own get_rsvs function is invoked.

Tests

Open the liquidity_pool/src/test.rs file to follow along.

liquidity_pool/src/test.rs
#![cfg(test)]
extern crate std;

use crate::{token, LiquidityPoolClient};

use soroban_sdk::{
symbol_short,
testutils::{Address as _, AuthorizedFunction, AuthorizedInvocation},
Address, BytesN, Env, IntoVal,
};

fn create_token_contract<'a>(e: &Env, admin: &Address) -> token::Client<'a> {
token::Client::new(e, &e.register_stellar_asset_contract(admin.clone()))
}

fn create_liqpool_contract<'a>(
e: &Env,
token_wasm_hash: &BytesN<32>,
token_a: &Address,
token_b: &Address,
) -> LiquidityPoolClient<'a> {
let liqpool = LiquidityPoolClient::new(e, &e.register_contract(None, crate::LiquidityPool {}));
liqpool.initialize(token_wasm_hash, token_a, token_b);
liqpool
}

fn install_token_wasm(e: &Env) -> BytesN<32> {
soroban_sdk::contractimport!(
file = "../token/target/wasm32-unknown-unknown/release/soroban_token_contract.wasm"
);
e.deployer().upload_contract_wasm(WASM)
}

#[test]
fn test() {
let e = Env::default();
e.mock_all_auths();

let mut admin1 = Address::random(&e);
let mut admin2 = Address::random(&e);

let mut token1 = create_token_contract(&e, &admin1);
let mut token2 = create_token_contract(&e, &admin2);
if &token2.address < &token1.address {
std::mem::swap(&mut token1, &mut token2);
std::mem::swap(&mut admin1, &mut admin2);
}
let user1 = Address::random(&e);
let liqpool = create_liqpool_contract(
&e,
&install_token_wasm(&e),
&token1.address,
&token2.address,
);

let token_share = token::Client::new(&e, &liqpool.share_id());

token1.mint(&user1, &1000);
assert_eq!(token1.balance(&user1), 1000);

token2.mint(&user1, &1000);
assert_eq!(token2.balance(&user1), 1000);

liqpool.deposit(&user1, &100, &100, &100, &100);
assert_eq!(
e.auths(),
std::vec![(
user1.clone(),
AuthorizedInvocation {
function: AuthorizedFunction::Contract((
liqpool.address.clone(),
symbol_short!("deposit"),
(&user1, 100_i128, 100_i128, 100_i128, 100_i128).into_val(&e)
)),
sub_invocations: std::vec![
AuthorizedInvocation {
function: AuthorizedFunction::Contract((
token1.address.clone(),
symbol_short!("transfer"),
(&user1, &liqpool.address, 100_i128).into_val(&e)
)),
sub_invocations: std::vec![]
},
AuthorizedInvocation {
function: AuthorizedFunction::Contract((
token2.address.clone(),
symbol_short!("transfer"),
(&user1, &liqpool.address, 100_i128).into_val(&e)
)),
sub_invocations: std::vec![]
}
]
}
)]
);

assert_eq!(token_share.balance(&user1), 100);
assert_eq!(token_share.balance(&liqpool.address), 0);
assert_eq!(token1.balance(&user1), 900);
assert_eq!(token1.balance(&liqpool.address), 100);
assert_eq!(token2.balance(&user1), 900);
assert_eq!(token2.balance(&liqpool.address), 100);

liqpool.swap(&user1, &false, &49, &100);
assert_eq!(
e.auths(),
std::vec![(
user1.clone(),
AuthorizedInvocation {
function: AuthorizedFunction::Contract((
liqpool.address.clone(),
symbol_short!("swap"),
(&user1, false, 49_i128, 100_i128).into_val(&e)
)),
sub_invocations: std::vec![AuthorizedInvocation {
function: AuthorizedFunction::Contract((
token1.address.clone(),
symbol_short!("transfer"),
(&user1, &liqpool.address, 97_i128).into_val(&e)
)),
sub_invocations: std::vec![]
}]
}
)]
);

assert_eq!(token1.balance(&user1), 803);
assert_eq!(token1.balance(&liqpool.address), 197);
assert_eq!(token2.balance(&user1), 949);
assert_eq!(token2.balance(&liqpool.address), 51);

e.budget().reset_unlimited();
liqpool.withdraw(&user1, &100, &197, &51);

assert_eq!(
e.auths(),
std::vec![(
user1.clone(),
AuthorizedInvocation {
function: AuthorizedFunction::Contract((
liqpool.address.clone(),
symbol_short!("withdraw"),
(&user1, 100_i128, 197_i128, 51_i128).into_val(&e)
)),
sub_invocations: std::vec![AuthorizedInvocation {
function: AuthorizedFunction::Contract((
token_share.address.clone(),
symbol_short!("transfer"),
(&user1, &liqpool.address, 100_i128).into_val(&e)
)),
sub_invocations: std::vec![]
}]
}
)]
);

assert_eq!(token1.balance(&user1), 1000);
assert_eq!(token2.balance(&user1), 1000);
assert_eq!(token_share.balance(&user1), 0);
assert_eq!(token1.balance(&liqpool.address), 0);
assert_eq!(token2.balance(&liqpool.address), 0);
assert_eq!(token_share.balance(&liqpool.address), 0);
}

In any test the first thing that is always required is an Env, which is the Soroban environment that the contract will run in.

liquidity_pool/src/test.rs
let e = Env::default();

We mock authentication checks in the tests, which allows the tests to proceed as if all users/addresses/contracts/etc. had successfully authenticated.

liquidity_pool/src/test.rs
e.mock_all_auths();

We have abstracted into a few functions the tasks of creating token contracts, deploying a liquidity pool contract, and installing the token example WASM bytecode into our test environment. Each are then used within the test.

liquidity_pool/src/test.rs
fn create_token_contract<'a>(e: &Env, admin: &Address) -> token::Client<'a> {
token::Client::new(e, &e.register_stellar_asset_contract(admin.clone()))
}

fn create_liqpool_contract<'a>(
e: &Env,
token_wasm_hash: &BytesN<32>,
token_a: &Address,
token_b: &Address,
) -> LiquidityPoolClient<'a> {
let liqpool = LiquidityPoolClient::new(e, &e.register_contract(None, crate::LiquidityPool {}));
liqpool.initialize(token_wasm_hash, token_a, token_b);
liqpool
}

fn install_token_wasm(e: &Env) -> BytesN<32> {
soroban_sdk::contractimport!(
file = "../token/target/wasm32-unknown-unknown/release/soroban_token_contract.wasm"
);
e.deployer().upload_contract_wasm(WASM)
}

All public functions within an impl block that is annotated with the #[contractimpl] attribute have a corresponding function generated in a generated client type. The client type will be named the same as the contract type with Client appended. For example, in our contract the contract type is LiquidityPool, and the client is named LiquidityPoolClient.

These tests examine the "typical" use-case of a liquidity pool, ensuring that the balances, returns, etc. are appropriate at various points during the test.

  1. First, the test sets everything up with an Env, two admin addresses, two reserve tokens, a randomly generated address to act as the user of the liquidity pool, the liquidity pool itself, a pool token shares contract, and mints the reserve assets to the user address.
  2. The user then deposits some of each asset into the liquidity pool. At this time, the following checks are done:
    • appropriate authorizations for deposits and transfers exist,
    • balances are checked for each token (token_a, token_b, and POOL) from both the user's perspective and the liqpool contract's perspective
  3. The user performs a swap, buying token_b in exchange for token_a. The same checks as the previous step are made now, excepting the balances of POOL, since a swap has no effect on POOL tokens.
  4. The user then withdraws all of the deposits it made, trading all of its POOL tokens in the process. The same checks are made here as were made in the deposit step.

Build the Contract

To build the contract, use the soroban contract build command.

soroban contract build

A .wasm file should be outputted in the target directory:

target/wasm32-unknown-unknown/release/soroban_liquidity_pool_contract.wasm

Run the Contract

If you have soroban-cli installed, you can invoke contract functions using it.

soroban contract invoke \
--wasm target/wasm32-unknown-unknown/release/soroban_liquidity_pool_contract.wasm \
--id 1 \
-- \
deposit \
--to GBZV3NONYSUDVTEHATQO4BCJVFXJO3XQU5K32X3XREVZKSMMOZFO4ZXR \
--desired_a 100 \
--min_a 98 \
--desired_be 200 \
--min_b 196 \